5 Referencing Styles- APA, Harvard, MLA, IEEE, Chicago Guide

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The academic and research writing has always been a puzzle for the students and scholars trying to battle out the question- ‘How to Begin?’. It is true that in order to deliver best assignment writing results, it is essential to not only emphasize on content but the structure and format in which the thesis has been presented.

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Being 14 years old academic help India based provider, we are offering complete guide on 5 referencing style of referencing. The reason of selecting these top 5 referencing styles is due to the fact most of the assignments we receive from New Zealand, UK, Australia, Germany, USA and  UAE require these type of referencing.

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That is the reason why our aim while discussing the topic here would be getting familiar with 5 quint essential referencing styles that are widely used across the globe. These referencing styles are used while writing different subjects.

Let us find out about the referencing styles that are popular among the students of academic writing in the countries such as New Zealand, United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, UAE, etc. While describing these styles and methods we are going to stress upon the referencing styles (as well as footnote style in a variant) while preparing research papers in various subjects across continents..

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What is APA referencing? How to cite APA style of referencing?

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APA Referencing Style

 

APA or American Psychological Association referencing style is used in the research thesis in different fields of social sciences including nursing. One of the important features associated with this form of reference styling is that the text needs the double line spacing as well as for the reference section.

 

  • The writing style deploys parenthetical system where the reference text appears in the following format: (<author name>, <publication year>, <page number/s>)
  • A comma (,) is placed after the publication year in case a page number is mentioned subsequent to it; e.g. (Holmes, 2003, p 40)
  • The format also allows the name of the author to be written out of the bracket; e.g. Holmes (2003, p 40) finds ………..
  • When you take the academic help of this referencing style then you ought to keep in mind the fact that references are listed on a different page by the end of the document.
  • The title indicating ‘References’ is provided to the list, settled at the centre and in bold font.
  • If there are more than one sources having the same first author but the following authors are different, then the references are listed on priority by the first author’s name and subsequently arranged alphabetically by the remaining author/s credit/name.
  • In case there are sources in which the surnames of the authors’ are same but there is a difference in initials, then the references are first listed by the surname of the first author’s and then chronologically by the first name initials.
  • In case a corporate author or a title has been used rather than author’s name, then the reference is enlisted under the first significant word. It is not enlisted under A, An or The.
  •  The first word of a reference is not an alphabet but a numeric digit, then the reference is listed prior the references carrying alphabetical start.
  • It is essential to mention a page number only in case when a part of work (like article from a newspaper or journal, an edited book chapter etc.) is utilized; in case the whole work is taken into account then there is no requirement of highlighting the page number. In case there is a single page reference then p. is used, and pp. is used for the references of multiple pages.
  • If there are bigger source titles like a journal or a book then they are italicized.
  • In case you wish to mention the sources that have been exploited in the quest of knowledge but are not cited in the research paper, then they have to be mentioned under the title “Bibliography” over a separate page.
  • As far as writing down author’s name is concerned, then your research thesis writing has to include the name in a special format where the last name is written down first and then initials of the first name is mentioned. It is essential to put comma after the surname and a full stop once after each initial. e.g. Albert Rosenberg is written down as Rosenberg, A. And Gilbert Wolfgang Petersen is written down as Petersen, G. W

 Read also: Creating APA style referencing list with examples for assignment.

What is Harvard style of referencing? How to use Harvard style of referencing?

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Harvard Referencing Style

 

Harvard is basically a generic term used to refer the referencing styles that are based on “author-date” format. It is primarily used in the assignment writing projects of the countries like the UK and Australia. There is a great use of punctuation and other formatting styles like indentation, line spacing, etc. It applies parenthetical style of referencing and used in different subjects of humanities.

 

  • The reference text appears in the following format: (<author name> <publication year>, <page number/s>)
  • In case of in-text citation only surname (the last name) of the concerned author is used; the name of the author and publication year are not separated by a comma (,). E.g. (Clinton 2003)
  • Please note that a comma (,) is placed after the publication year in case a page number is subsequently highlighted. (Clinton 2003, p 40)
  • The special privileged of of writing down the name of the author out of the bracket is also permitted. E.g Clinton (2003, p 45) observes………….
  • Please note that when you are taking the assignment help in Harvard reference styling then you are required to keep in mind the fact that detailed references are enlisted on a different page by the end of the research document. The list is provided under the title ‘References’ and it is placed in centre and with bold font.
  • It is noteworthy that no reference carries any hanging indent. There is a double line spacing between each entry.
  • The whole list is arranged in an alphabetical order comprising the reference to the surname of the first author or the first important word provided in the title (done in the references that begun without the name of the author).
  • In case more than one sources have the identical first author but the different later authors, then references are listed foremost by the name of first author and the names of subsequent author/s are arranged subsequently. e.g. W. H. Clinton (2016): A Manual for Referencing Styles in Research 20
  • In case a corporate author or a title has been used rather than author’s name, then the reference is enlisted under the first significant word. It is not enlisted under A, An or The.
  •  The first word of a reference is not an alphabet but a numeric digit, then the reference is listed prior the references carrying alphabetical start.
  • It is essential to mention a page number only in case when a part of work (like article from a newspaper or journal, an edited book chapter etc.) is utilized; in case the whole work is taken into account then there is no requirement of highlighting the page number. In case of a single page reference then p. is used, and pp. is used for the references of multiple pages.
  • If there are bigger source titles like a journal or a book then they are italicized.
  • In case you wish to mention the sources that have been exploited in the quest of knowledge but are not cited in the research paper, then they have to be mentioned under the title “Bibliography” over a separate page.
  • In case of the reference list, the author’s name is written in a way: the last name is written first and then the initials of the first name(s) are to be mentioned; no full stop or comma is placed after the initials. E.g. Wally Clinton is written as Clinton W and Wally Edward Clinton is written as Clinton WE

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 What is  MLA referencing? How to use MLA style of referencing?

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MLA Referencing Style

 Modern Language Association of America or MLA is a referencing style meant for academic writing help in two variety of documents i.e. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers and MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Both kinds of research document writing are published with identical information and formatting. MLA style utilizes parenthetical system of referencing and it is primarily used in the subjects of literature and linguistics.

 

  • It employs parenthetical system for the author’s name as well as the page number of the related source. The reference text would look like the following: (<author surname> <page number/s>)
  • In in-text citation comprising the surname (last name) of the author is utilized; the name of the author and the page number are not divided by a comma (,). For instance: (Clinton 23)
  • In case the page number is not available then the author’s name is sufficient.
  • It permits the name of the author out of the bracket. For instance: Clinton observes ……….. (20).
  • In case two references that are following each other belonging to the identical source, omit the name of the author and just write the page number in the later instance. Please note that detailed references are enlisted on a separate page by the document’s end. The title ‘Works Cited’ is assigned to the list.
  • Each and every reference carries a hanging indent i.e. first line of each reference is adjusted to the left margin and the remaining lines are indented. Each of the reference ends up with full stop (.).
  • The arrangement of the list is done in an alphabetical order carrying reference to the surname of the first author’s surname. In case the name of the author is absent, then it will begun with the first word of the title.
  • In case multiple sources of the same author are deployed, then an alphabetical listing of all the references is required to be done by the name of the first author and then by the title.
  • Titles that are belonging to independently published work like a journal, book, etc. are italicized. The titles are a segment of some larger form of work (like, essays, journal articles, individual stories or poems, web pages, chapters of books) are basically enclosed within a double quotation mark.
  • The titles of unpublished sources also enclosed within double quotation mark.
  • The name of the author is mentioned in the following manner- Kapil Gupta is written as Gupta, Kapil or Gupta, K. and Kapil Harilal Gupta is written as Gupta, Kapil Harilal or Gupta, K. H.

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What is IEEE style of referencing? How to use IEEE referencing style?

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IEEE Referencing Style

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE Referencing Style is a format that is highly used in writing technical research papers in the field of engineering and technology. It employs a note system of referencing for in-text citation with numeric digit and detailed references are offered at the end of document in a separate page. The citation style is quite commonly used in the field of electronics, electric, computer science and information technology by the students seeking research assignment help across the world.

 

  • In terms of in-text citation, number to each reference is assigned in square brackets in absence being in superscript.
  • The number is here positioned either in the sentence or prior to the relevant punctuation marks like comma, full stop, etc.
  • Number to every source is allotted in the sequence as it displays in your document.
  • In order to cite the same source again within your document utilize the identical number that has been used earlier in your work source.
  • In case, you ought to make reference to earlier mentioned source but carrying different page number/ chapter/ section then it can follow the format such as [5, pp. 19-21]
  • Employ the abbreviation ‘p.’ meant a single page, ‘pp.’ meant for multiple pages, ‘Sec.’ meant for a section, and ‘Ch.’ meant for a chapter..
  • References are assigned to a separate page with title ‘References’ is provided to the list, can either be placed over the left margin or rather in the centre with bold font right at the top of the page.
  • In the titles of journals and books all the major key words are mentioned in capital letters.
  • The information flow is given in the following format-

-Name of the Author.

-Title of the chapter or the article

-Title of the source.

-Edition (for the non-periodicals only) or volume number as well as issue number (for periodicals only)

-Publication Place. (for non-periodicals only)

-Publisher Name. (for non-periodicals only)

-Publication Year.

-Page numbers

– DOI or URL.

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 What is Chicago style of referencing? How to use Chicago referencing style?

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Chicago Referencing Style:

The Style of referencing has been introduced by the University of Chicago over a hundred years ago. The first version of Chicago manual was published for the academic assignment help and research use in the year 1981. There has been constant revision in the manual and there has been 16 editions published so far. It primarily uses the note system for referencing. The referencing style is primarily used in the field of arts and humanities.

 

  • A reference is firstly provided in footnotes preceded by a numerical digit and subsequently it is provided again by the document’s end within the page known as reference list or bibliography.
  • The footnotes format would be the following- the name of the author is written in the footnote name as it is; in bibliography, the last name of author is highlighted first and then the first name(s) or the initial(s) of the first name(s) is written. The names are separated with the help of a comma.  
  • The amount of information in each footnote may vary.
  • When a source is cited for the first time, the information is highlighted in the following order- <first name of the author> < last name of the author>, <the title> (<place of the publication>: <publisher>, <year>), <page nos.>.
  • If the same source is cited on the second or more occasions, the foot note would look like the following-  <last name of the author>, <title>, <pg. nos.>.
  • In the later footnotes, the title may also be curtailed in case it carries more than five words. For e.g. the title ‘The Order from the Central Bank of Scotland’ may reduced in the following way- ‘The Order, of Scotland’.
  • In case a corporate author or a title has been used rather than author’s name, then the reference is enlisted under the first significant word. It is not enlisted under A, An or The.
  •  The first word of a reference is not an alphabet but a numeric digit, then the reference is listed prior the references carrying alphabetical start.
  • Writing down the name of the author- while writing down the name in footnote; the initial of the first name, then full stop and followed by the last name. For e.g. Khalid Ghazi is written as K. Ghazi, while Khalid Mohammed Ghazi will be written as K. M. Ghazi.

The five reference styles that have been mentioned above carry their respective features making them unique with respect to the format meant for a particular subject.

 

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