If you are following APA Style for your thesis or dissertation, the sources you have used should be listed in alphabetical order. Further, you have to follow the APA formatting rules when creating reference list or bibliography. The format to be used depends on the type of source. After you know how to score A grade in research paper, there are various other points you need to bear in mind. For instance, there are basic rules that are related to APA reference lists. Let’s have a look:
Some of the basic rules related to the reference lists are:
#1: The initials should follow the author’s last name. If a source has more than one author, each one should be listed individually. List up to six authors and then add “et al.” for subsequent authors. If the name of more than one author has to be listed, you have to use an ampersand before the name of the last author instead of “and.”
#2: After the first line an indent of nearly one-half inch should be provided for each subsequent line.
#3: Write the list in alphabetical order using authors’ last names. If more than one source of an author has to be listed, then the earliest source has to be listed first.
#4: All major words in the titles of the cited journals must be capitalized. If you are citing books, it need not be so. In the case of longer works such as journals and books, the titles have to be italicized. Titles of shorter works such as essays need not be italicized.
Examples of Reference List
Here are a few examples of APA Style reference listing:
#1: In the case of books, you should include the title, year of publication, publisher’s name and location, and author’s names.
Mathew, T. J., & William, X. Q. (2003). Economic growth in South Africa. New York: Johnson Brothers Publishers.
#2: When it comes to electronic sources, the author’s name and publication date (if available), article or web page title, issue or volume number (if available), retrieval date, and Internet address are to be listed.
When citing an online periodical:
Mathew, T. J., & William, X. Q. (2004). Determining the role of technology in economic growth. Retrieved September 20, 2007, from (address of the website)
When citing a standard webpage:
Tracking the Economy Website. (2006). Report on the growth of technology. Retrieved July 16, 2007, from (address of the website)
When citing an online presentation or lecture:
Mathew, T. J. (2006). Role of technology in economic growth [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from (address of the website)
#3: When referencing a government document, list the governmental department in alphabetical order as the author’s name may not be available.
Department of Treasury. (2005). GDP forecast, 2010-2015 (Publication number 2010-10-0052). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
#4: If you want to include periodicals in your reference list, provide that the author’s name, publication date, article title, periodical’s name, and numbers of the pages referred to. This is the format if the source is a newspaper or magazine.
Mathew, T. J. (2007, November 30). Government’s investment in technology. New York Times, p. B1.
The format used for a journal is slightly different. The issue number is to be given in italics before the page number.
Mathew, T. J. (2010). Technology’s role in local economies. Journal of Economic Data, 7, 423-427.
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